One case report of clown nose: nasal metastasis of ovarian cancer
Skin metastases in ovarian cancer are uncommon, but their incidence may be increasing due to improved survival rates. Skin metastases can be divided into umbilical metastases, which are known as Sister Joseph nodules (SJNs) and are associated with peritoneal metastasis, and non-SJN skin metastases, which usually develop within surgical scars and in the vicinity of superficial lymphadenopathy. As most skin metastases develop after specific conditions, recognition of preceding metastatic diseases and prior treatments is necessary for early diagnosis of skin lesions. The prognosis of skin metastases in ovarian cancer varies widely since they are heterogeneous in the site of lesion and the time of appearance. Patients with SJNs at initial diagnosis and patients with surgical scar recurrences without concomitant metastases may have prolonged survival with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy. In patients who developed skin recurrences as a late manifestation, symptoms should be treated with external beam radiotherapy and immune response modifiers. Immune checkpoint blockade can enhance anti-tumor immunity and induce durable clinical responses in multiple tumor types, including advanced chemoresistant ovarian cancer. With the use of radiation therapy, which enhances the systemic anti-tumor immune response, immune checkpoint blockade may be a promising therapeutic strategy for distant metastasis, including skin metastasis.