[This article belongs to Volume - 38, Issue - 05]

Biogas Quality Enhancement: A Review of Purification Methods and Technological Trends

Biogas is a highly efficient and beneficial energy source. Biogas is an energy source generated from the anaerobic the decomposition of organic materials by bacteria. The anaerobic digestion (AD) process generates biogas, which presents significant economic and environmental benefits. The economic advantages include the production of thermal energy, electrical power, and fuel, with the utilisation of digestate produced by the anaerobic digestion (AD) procedure as a form of fertiliser. The environmental advantages include the effective handling of organic waste, the recovery of nutrients, a decrease of water and air contamination, and the reduction of odorous pollutants. The utilisation of biomethane, which is produced by upgrading biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide and other elements, has emerged as a potential mitigation option to address the challenges associated with the demand for fossil fuel-based energy. A variety of commercially available technologies are employed for the purpose of eliminating pollutants from biogas. The aforementioned technologies encompass pressure swing adsorption, membrane separation, water scrubbers, chemical scrubbers, cryogenic separation, as well as emerging biological approaches like biofiltration and bioscrubber. This article examines various methodologies currently accessible for the purification of biogas. This study aims to examine both the potential benefits and the inherent difficulties associated with these technologies.