[This article belongs to Volume - 38, Issue - 04]

Comprehensive Review of MAC Protocols for WBAN Applications

This study presents a comprehensive review of the Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN), an emerging and unique technology widely employed in human health monitoring to address the increasing demand for healthcare services. WBAN enables continuous remote monitoring in real-time by utilizing biomedical sensor nodes strategically placed in or around a patient’s body to collect human physical parameters. The paper discusses the key characteristics of WBAN, focusing on their system architecture, types of sensor nodes, and network topology. Furthermore, it examines the communication standards adopted by WBAN, specifically the MAC superframe structures according to IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6. The study delves into various Multiple Access (MA) schemes, including TDMA, CSMA/CA, Polling/Low-Power Listening (LPL), and Hybrid mechanisms, while also providing a comparative analysis of dynamic management MAC protocols. Additionally, the paper investigates simulation tools utilized in prior research to evaluate WBAN. Finally, it identifies research challenges faced in the domain of WBAN, laying the foundation for future research directions in this burgeoning field of human health monitoring technology.