One-Step Catalytic Transformation of Cellulose to Ethanol Over Nickel/Sulfonated Active Carbon: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study
Research on cellulose as a source for ethanol production through a one-step catalytic reaction using heterogeneous catalysts is a topic of considerable interest presently. The one-step catalytic process is needed to save energy and time in the process of producing ethanol from biomass sources. In this experiment, the thermodynamics and kinetics are studied to determine the parameters that affect the one-step catalytic process using heterogeneous catalysts. The results of research on screening catalysts between Active Carbon (AC), Sulfonated Active Carbon (SAC), and Nickel-Sulfonated Active Carbon (Ni-SAC) from the results of BET were 21.0579, 31.4048, and 80.3394. Acid treatment and the addition of active metals to active carbon were successful to increase the surface area of the catalyst. Catalyst screening was also carried out of catalyst performance in the transformation of cellulose into ethanol in a batch reactor and obtained ethanol yields of 0.638% (AC), 0.845% (SAC), and 1.711% (Ni-SAC). With the best results of the catalytic test and performance, Ni-SAC is used as a catalyst which is used to determine thermodynamic parameters and kinetic study on the transformation of cellulose into ethanol. In this process, the temperature has an influence on the yield of ethanol. The pseudo-second-order reaction rate equation is convenient for describing this reaction. The Energy Activation (Ea) in the cellulose conversion reaction using Ni/SAC catalyst is 34,4819 kJ/mol. The values of the enthalpy and entropy of reaction are 8.3810 kJ.mol and 24564 J/mol, respectively, the Gibss energy of activation at 200℃, 220℃ and 240℃ is negative, the Gibss energy is in a state of equilibrium.