[This article belongs to Volume - 38, Issue - 04]

Perceptions of Climate Change in the Rural Population and their Expected Impact on the Secondary Metabolite and Essential Oils of Plants (Calamintha Officinalis)

Currently, the pressing issue of climate change presents a substantial ecological peril to life on Earth, causing deterioration in plant biodiversity and disruptions in physiological and morphological processes within plants. The assessment of secondary metabolites across various treatments unveils noteworthy revelations. In treatment 1 (plant 1), the analysis uncovers the presence of alkaloids (13.3%), coumarins (4.36%), tannins (4.34%), flavonoids (6.83%), and saponins (6.33%). In contrast, treatment 2 (plant 2) showcases elevated proportions of alkaloids (15.1%), coumarins (4.55%), tannins (4.99%), flavonoids (13.07%), and saponins (8.15%). Conversely, treatment 3 (plant 3) exhibits diminished proportions of secondary metabolites, encompassing alkaloids (14%), coumarins (4.44%), tannins (4.62%), flavonoids (9.58%), and saponins (7%). Additionally, the yield of essential oils varies under normal climatic conditions: 0.42% for plant 1, 0.62% for plant 2 in treatment 2, and 0.58% for plant 3 in the fourth year. Delving into primary metabolites, their proportions wane as temperature and water stress escalates, transitioning from treatment 1 to treatment 2 and onward to treatment 3. Specifically, lipids decrease from 1.56% to 1.2% and further to 0.7%. Carbohydrates decline from 8.21% to 7.55% and then to 6.3%. Dietary fibers follow suit, decreasing from 4.43% to 4.01%, culminating at 3.2%. Protein undergoes a marked decline from 10.13% to 9.06%, eventually reaching 0.7%. Survey results conducted within the Taounate region illuminate a unanimous awareness of climate change and its recent ramifications among the interviewed populace. These individuals have personally observed elevated temperatures compared to past norms, coupled with a considerable reduction in rainfall.