[This article belongs to Volume - 38, Issue - 04]

Physiological Adaptation of Plants under Stressful Climatic Conditions

Climate change is a pressing ecological issue that poses a significant threat to life on Earth. In light of this, a scientific study has been conducted in the Taounate region to investigate this phenomenon. The main objective of the study is to predict the impact of climate change on the content of secondary metabolites and chemical compounds of essential oils under three different treatments. The analysis of the qualitative and quantitative results for Salvia officinalis shows that the percentage of primary metabolites varies across the first, second, and fourth years of the study. The first year had 7.13% protein, 6.21% carbohydrate, 1.35% lipid, and 4% dietary fiber, while the second year had 7.05% protein, 5.12% carbohydrate, 1.01% lipid, and 3.01% dietary fiber, and the fourth year had 6.86% protein, 3.02% carbohydrate, 0.52% lipid, and 2.34% dietary fiber. Secondary metabolites, including alkaloids (1.11%, 2.33%, 1.54%), flavonoids (1.57%, 4.14%, 2.53%), saponins (0.7%, 1.24%, 0.9%), coumarins (0.44%, 2.26%, 1.3%), and tannins (0.26%, 4.6%, 1.52%), were also analyzed. The major compounds of the essential oils, α-thujone (0.78%, 10.44%, 0.09%), manool (11.87%, 13.67%, 13.09%), β-caryophyllene (12.08%, 6.89%, 14.01%), and α-humulene (10.80%, 0.01%, 10.03%), were also examined. For Inula viscosa, the percentage of lipids, carbohydrates, dietary fibers, and protein varied across the first, second, and fourth years of the study. In the first year, lipids were at 1.56%, carbohydrates were at 8.21%, dietary fibers were at 4.43%, and protein was at 10.13%. In the second year, there were increases in alkaloids (4.85%), coumarins (0.45%), tannins (4.23%), flavonoids (2.4%), and saponins (2.42%). In the fourth year, these levels decreased to 4.14%, 0.34%, 3.02%, 1.83%, and 2.28%, respectively. The major compounds of the essential oils were also analyzed, showing a decrease from 0.40% to 0.60% in the second year and 0.52% in the fourth year.